Full Title: Frontal Muscle
Author: Cheryl Peacock
Date of Publication: December 9, 2011
Research Paper Text:
The frontal muscle of the canine is an under researched superficial muscle of the dogs head. It is located between the eyebrow and the ears (Dog Anatomy Coloring Atlas, Kainer and McCracken). After a search of the internet, the local library, the local Barnes and Nobel bookstore, and the assistance of my vet and my instructor (Jonathan Rudinger), this researcher has found it necessary to look at the human frontalis muscle for any detail on this superficial facial muscle. From this point forward the dog’s frontal muscle and the human frontalis muscle will be referenced for this paper.
The frontal muscle of the dog is located on the fore face of the dog above the eyebrow and below the ear, hence it has been named for its location.. It is a superficial muscle so it has no bony attachments. To be exact, the origin in the galea aponeurotica. “The galea aponeurotica (epicranial aponeurosis, aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which covers the upper part of the cranium; behind, it is attached, in the interval between its union with the Occipitales, to the external occipital protuberance and highest nuchal lines of the occipital bone; in front, it forms a short and narrow prolongation between its union with the Frontales(Wikipedia,2011).” The insert is located in the skin above the eyebrows (Wikipedia, 2011). It is innervated by the temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII) and is supplied with blood by the superficial temporal artery (face-and-emotion.com).the size of this muscle is not mentioned in the research available.
The function of the frontalis muscle is to wrinkle forehead and in humans it assists in raising parts of the eyebrow. Its superficial functions are probably why it has not been studied much in dogs (not to many plastic surgeries or facelifts done on dogs). When referring to dogs all references to function refer to the wrinkling of the brow and there is no mention of the muscle assisting in lifting the brow, although we may assume, do to its attachment sites, that it may also assists the dog in moving its eyebrows. Again the frontal muscle is an under examined superficial muscle of the dog’s head; much more information can be found by referencing the human frontalis muscle.
Full Title: Teres Muscle (Major and Minor)
Author: LIsa Giknis
Date of Publication: November 8, 2011
Research Paper Text:
The teres muscle is a muscle that is located in the shoulder of the dog and it’s function is to flex teh shoulder as well as to adduct and internally rotate the shoulder when the front limb is in an outstretched position. This shares a common tendon called the lattisimus dorsi which is used for forward propulsion.
The teres major muscle is a thick but somewhat flattened muscle and is located deep within the shoulder of the dog. Teres means long and round which is how the muscle got it’s name.
Together the teres major and teres minor muscle form an axillary space through which several important arteries and veins pass.
The teres major is a medical rotator and adductor of the humerus and the lattisimus dorsi as states above. The teres major also helps stabilize the humeral head in the glenoid cavity.
The teres major originates from the caudal angle and caudal edge of the scapula and inserts into the eminence on the proximal 1/3 of the medial surface of the humerus.
The innervation is the axillary nerve and the teres major and minor get their blood supply from the axillary artery.
The teres major is the most commonly strained muscle of the dog as it acts like their front wheel drive to assist in propulsion, jumping and pulling their front end and plays an important roll in the dog’s activity.
Full Title: Action of Tail when Elevated
Author: Kimberly Gradin
Date of Publication: October 31, 2011
Research Paper Text:
The report agreed upon with instructor, Jonathan, was regarding a specific articulation of the body. It was describing the action of the tail when elevated. I found this to be very difficult, just trying to find much on the tail itself. Here is what perseverance has taught me.
The soft tissues around the anus harden as muscles contract and press on the anal gland, also stretching the hamstring muscles. Every time a dog moves its tail it acts like a fan for scent. Therefore a dominant dog that carries his tail high will release much more natural scent from his anal glands than a dog that holds his tail lower.
The Sacrocaudalis muscles give mobility to the tail. The dog’s tail is elevated (extended) by contraction of the medial and lateral dorsal sacrocaudal muscles.
The dorsal sacrocaudal muscles get there name from being dorsally attached to the sacral and caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae, which is part of the axial skeleton. They are a small group of muscles in the hind limb area.
The lateral dorsal sacrocaudal muscle’s origin is a continuation of the longissimus, fleshy from aponeurosis of the longissimus and a tendinous origin from the mamillary processes of the first to sixth lumbar vertebra, the articular processes of the sacrum, and the mamillary processes of at least the first eight caudal vertebrae. Its insertion is mamillary processes of the fifth to last caudal vertebrae. The action is the extension or lifting of the tail, possibly also to move it to the side. The nerve innervations are branches of the plexus caudalis dorsalis (caudal and sacral nerves).
The medial dorsal sacrocaudal muscle’s origin is the small processes that are dorsolateral to the caudal edge of the caudal vertebrae. It is direct extension of the multifidus muscle. Its insertion is mamillary processes of the fifth through last caudal vertebrae. Its action is extension of the tail and possibly lateral flexion. The nerve innervations are also the branches of the plexus caudalis dorsalis (caudal and sacral nerves).
The medial caudal artery, and the bilaterally paired lateral caudal arteries (2), and branches of the caudal gluteal arteries are the 3 major sources of blood to the tail.
The ligaments attached are the dorsal sacroiliac ligament and the sacrotuberous ligament.
Basically when the dorsal sacrocaudal muscles contract, the tail elevates pressing on anal glands secreting the animals scent into the air. The sacral and caudal nerves supply the motion and feeling in the skin. The caudal and gluteal arteries supply blood to these muscles, and the dorsal sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments keep it in line.
Full Title: Muscle System of the Dog
Author: Yuko Kusumoto
Date of Publication: July 26, 2011
Research Paper Text:
Muscular system is secreted in the whole body by attaching to the frame in the organ system that rules the motor function and forming the wall to internal organs. The muscle that forms the muscle system is an organization that gets excited or tension by stimulation as well as the nerve, and causes the potential action. Muscular shrinks by getting excited for the nerve. This system makes movements of each muscle.
The muscle is classified into three by the difference of the mechanism of the structure and shrinkage. “Smooth muscle” that forms wall of internal organs, “cardiac muscle” is the wall of the heart formed and “skeletal muscle” attached to skeletons.
Skeletal muscles are classified into two. “White muscle” does fast shrinkage in detail for the small movement. ‘Red muscle” does slow and long movement of shrinkage for the maintenance of posture etc.
The muscle system has an important system of heat production besides the system of causing the movement. Skeletal muscles are the organs which produce most of heat. 25% of muscular energy is used for the movement of muscles. 75% of the remainder is used for keeping the body temperatures as the thermal energy.
The living thin gathers individual cells. Therefore, the muscles are formed by gathered cells, too. The cell that forms the muscle is called “muscle fiber”. Bundled and covered ‘muscle fiber” is called “Fascia”.
The muscle fiber of skeletal muscles is covered with the film, the endomysium. It connects with the structure like meshes of a net and the nerve that transmits information to the muscle and the blood vessel that carries blood to the muscle. Skeletal muscles adhere from one bone to other bones. Because skeletal muscles shrink, and loosen, it has the role to move the frame and to fix the joint. Skeletal muscles are “voluntary muscle” that can be shrunk by intention.
Mechanism of muscular shrinkage
The instruction in muscular shrinkage of skeletal muscles is transmitted from the motor nerve through nerve-streak. Moreover, smooth muscle, the excitement transmitted from autonomic to the muscle. The excitements of tensions transmit to the muscle is transmitted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The entire muscle shortens because the length of each muscle plate is shrunk because this movement if done in all the muscle plates when the excitement transmits. It returns to former length when the excitement of the muscle ends, and it prepares for the following shrinkage.
About the movement of dog’s tail
Dog’s feeling and excitement appear to the muscle and the hair of the body. Especially, the hair in the vicinity of the spine bristles up, and there is a thing that even the hair of the tail bristles up, too. Because the bone of the tail is connected with the spine as it is, and the part in the root of the tail is especially sensitive, it can be said that the content of transmission is comprehensible if the tail is seen.
When the tension and the excitement become to intense, the movement of the tail bristles up also the hear of the tail (Only the upper part) shows the rise of the nerve in the tail when the dog is strained or gets excited by going as for the nerve though the hair of the scruff of the neck and the back is bristled.
The movement of the tail shows the rise of the nerve. When not only happy but also angering it, the tail is shaken. If the tail is shaken by the bottom, it is shown that I am not comfortable. The tail is hung, and when placing it between legs confidence is lost, and it feels horror. And it is confident expression when shaking it on.
There is an important system on dog’s tail besides the expression of feeling. When run, jumping or swimming, the tail does the role of ‘Rudder’. Especially, it moves to turn the tail greatly when stopping slamming on the brakes when running at Frisbee etc., and the body is balanced. Moreover, the dog sleeps curled up at cold time of winter. The nose is covered with the tail at that time, cold air is not inhaled, and the respiratory organs is protected.
It is important that we untie the muscle by massaging dog’s body, promote circulation of the blood, improve working of the cell, and manage dog’s body. Moreover, the rise of the nerve because of the continuation of the tension and excitement, and softening by massage for the dog with hard muscles also stabilize, and connect felling with heart.
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