Full Title: Frontal Muscle
Author: Cheryl Peacock
Date of Publication: December 9, 2011
Research Paper Text:
The frontal muscle of the canine is an under researched superficial muscle of the dogs head. It is located between the eyebrow and the ears (Dog Anatomy Coloring Atlas, Kainer and McCracken). After a search of the internet, the local library, the local Barnes and Nobel bookstore, and the assistance of my vet and my instructor (Jonathan Rudinger), this researcher has found it necessary to look at the human frontalis muscle for any detail on this superficial facial muscle. From this point forward the dog’s frontal muscle and the human frontalis muscle will be referenced for this paper.
The frontal muscle of the dog is located on the fore face of the dog above the eyebrow and below the ear, hence it has been named for its location.. It is a superficial muscle so it has no bony attachments. To be exact, the origin in the galea aponeurotica. “The galea aponeurotica (epicranial aponeurosis, aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which covers the upper part of the cranium; behind, it is attached, in the interval between its union with the Occipitales, to the external occipital protuberance and highest nuchal lines of the occipital bone; in front, it forms a short and narrow prolongation between its union with the Frontales(Wikipedia,2011).” The insert is located in the skin above the eyebrows (Wikipedia, 2011). It is innervated by the temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII) and is supplied with blood by the superficial temporal artery (face-and-emotion.com).the size of this muscle is not mentioned in the research available.
The function of the frontalis muscle is to wrinkle forehead and in humans it assists in raising parts of the eyebrow. Its superficial functions are probably why it has not been studied much in dogs (not to many plastic surgeries or facelifts done on dogs). When referring to dogs all references to function refer to the wrinkling of the brow and there is no mention of the muscle assisting in lifting the brow, although we may assume, do to its attachment sites, that it may also assists the dog in moving its eyebrows. Again the frontal muscle is an under examined superficial muscle of the dog’s head; much more information can be found by referencing the human frontalis muscle.